Posts Tagged ‘request’

Define URL Rewriting Frequently Asked Interview Question Answers

What Is URL Rewriting


As we know that session needs to be maintained because http is a stateless protocol.Due to which connection is lost or session is lost after every request response cycle between the client and the server.In order to maintain or track the session the server needs to get the additional information of the session id so that the session object pertaining to the client or server can be retrieved at the server side and the session can be managed.The session can be managed by either  cookies,hidden parameter or URL rewriting.

URL Rewriting is used in the cases where client browser does not accept cookies.In such case the server does not get the session id thus it is unable to relate he session object with the client or user.In order to maintain the session some extra piece of code needs to be added so that even if the cookies are not accepted at the browser level still the session can be maintained.URL Rewriting is something to fall upon as a precautionary measure.The code to get session and URL Rewriting is demonstrated below :

out.println("<a href = "\"+response.encodeURL()+""\>Click Here</a>");

Here the anchor tag is used for URL Rewriting.Since the extra measure is used to take care that if the client browser does not accept cookies the session id is attached to the URL so that the session can be maintained.In URL Rewriting the session id is passed as an extra information with the URL that means rewriting of the URL is done.URL Rewriting can also be done with redirection as below :

response.sendRedirect(response.encodeRedirectURL("URL-Pattern of the servlet"));

The first time the server  tries with both cookies and URL Rewriting ,if it finds that the cookies are not coming it checks for session id as a part of URL Rewriting and finds that it has to fall upon URL Rewriting if the code has provisioned that.


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Basic Servlet Attributes Thread Safety Interview Questions Answers Explained

Servlet Attributes Thread Safety  

An attribute is used to communicate some value from one servlet to another. Depending upon the scope of the attribute we can access the attributes at parts of the application.An attribute can be set at either of the scopes as follows :





Now in order to find out which attribute/s is/are thread safe,we can ponder upon with following discussion.

1.Application Attributes : An application attribute is a value set at application level. The code to set the attribute at application level is :


As these attributes are accessible throughout the application,any servlet or any other web entity can update or get these attributes from various parts of the application. Since application attributes can be accessed or modified by any servlet in the web application,these are not thread safe.


2.Session Attributes : A session attribute is a value set at session scope. Session is used to retain user specific data. The code to set the attribute at application level is :


When we talk about thread safety of session attributes,at one glimpse it deceives to appear as thread safe. In cases where we have the new tab feature in the modern browsers,the same session for the web application is opened in the new tab. In such case, if session attribute are updated from one tab will be reflected in the another tab with the same session. Thus we can say that session attributes are also not thread safe.

3.Request Attributes : A request attribute is a value set at request scope.he code to set the attribute at application scope is :


As we know that each request is a unique object , whatever attribute we set at request scope cant be updated or get from another request. Thus request attributes are thread safe.

Conclusion : Thus request attributes are thread safe and application and session attributes are not.

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Types Of Attributes In Servlet Servlet Scopes And Attributes Saving Data In A Servlet Attributes Interview Question

Types Of Attributes In Servlet


An attribute is an object used to pass some value from one servlet to another.An attribute in a servlet can be set at various scopes depending upon the visibility in the web application.As we know that there are three scopes at servlet level in the application.Theses scopes are :




An attribute can be set on either of the scopes depending on the situation we want access the attribute value either at request,session or application level.

When we want the value of an attribute o be accessed at request level we use request attributes and likewise for session and application.

Types of attributes in servlet can be explained on the basis of scope it belongs to :

1.Request Attributes

2.Session attributes

3.Application Attributes


1.Request Attributes can be set or get as demonstrated below in the code :


2.Session Attributes  can be set or get as shown below :


3.Application Attributes can be set or get as below :


Now comes the question where to use what?

Request Attributes : If we want to retain or communicate  a value across servlets where request does not change,we use request attributes.This can be the situation where include or forward is happening between the servlets in a web application.In such cases where we want to communicate a value across servlets we can use request attributes which when set from one servlet can be get in other servlets.

Session Attributes : In cases where user specific data has to be retained or communicated, we use session attributes.We use session attributes when we do not want a user’s data to be interfered by other users.It should be noted that these attributes can be retrieved  even when redirect is happening provided the session is maintained .


Application Attributes : In cases where some value has to be set at application level and all the entities in the web application can read that value we use application attributes.




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Request Dispatching In Servlets Servlets / Request Dispatcher RequestDispatcher Vs SendRedirect What Is A Request Dispatcher And How Does It Work What Is A Request Dispatcher And How Do I Use It Include Forward Redirect

Servlet Request Dispatching

Delegating the request from one servlet to another or transfer of excution from one servlet to another is known as request dispatching in servlet.

In another ways we can define it as interservlet communication,which means one servlet calling another servlet.This concept can be used in cases where some piece of code is needed to be written in different servlets.Thus, in such cases we can write that code in a single servlet and keep on calling that code from different servlets.

There are three ways in which request delegation can be done. These ways are as follows :






1. Include : This method suggests that the response from the another servlet be included in the response of the first  servlet. This is equivalent to copy pasting the response of one servlet into another.In case of inclusion,the response which the client receives is the append of both including and the included servlets.However,for the client it appears that the including servlet only has responded.Following line of code is used to include a servlet response into another servlet :

RequestDispatcher rd = request.getRequestDispatcher("url-pattern of the servlet");


Here RequestDispatcher object is needed .We can see that request and response objects of the first servlet are passed to the servlet which we wish to include through include method so that request remains the same and the included servlet can write to the response of the including servlet and it appears that including servlet itself has processed the request.

2. Forward : It works same as  include except for the difference that the reponse from the first servlet is flushed out and the reponse from the second servlet only is visible.Example code is :

RequestDispatcher rd = request.getRequestDispatcher("url-pattern of the servlet");


Here also it appears to the client that the first servlet only has processed the request.

3. Redirect : In the case of redirect the first servlet issues a new request to a another servlet to which redirection has happened.In this case client sees a new request in the browser url bar and can realize that the response comes from the second servlet.Example code is :

response.sendRedirect("url-pattern of the servlet");


Here we can see that response object is used.This done for the reason that the issuing of the new request at the client side,in the browser url bar has to be done by the first servlet.


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